# Embedding large data sets¶

Embedding large data sets typically requires more care. Using various
tricks described in *preserving_global_structure* can become quite slow
to run. Instead, we can take a smaller, manageable sample of our data
set, obtain a good visualization of that. Then, we can add the remaining
points to the embedding and use that as our initialization.

Remember that the initialization largely affects the structure of the embedding. This way, our initialization provides the global structure for the embedding, and the subsequent optimization can focus on preserving local strucutre.

## Load data¶

```
CPU times: user 4.73 s, sys: 980 ms, total: 5.71 s
Wall time: 5.71 s
```

```
Data set contains 1306127 samples with 50 features
```

We’ll also precompute the full affinities, since we’ll be needing it in several places throughout the notebook, and can take a long time to run.

```
CPU times: user 46min 53s, sys: 1min 39s, total: 48min 33s
Wall time: 5min 35s
```

```
CPU times: user 4h 54min 10s, sys: 4min 44s, total: 4h 58min 55s
Wall time: 22min 23s
```

## Standard t-SNE¶

First, let’s see what standard t-SNE does.

```
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TSNE(n_jobs=32, verbose=True)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
===> Running optimization with exaggeration=12.00, lr=108843.92 for 250 iterations...
Iteration 50, KL divergence 8.9036, 50 iterations in 43.6444 sec
Iteration 100, KL divergence 8.1739, 50 iterations in 45.7009 sec
Iteration 150, KL divergence 7.9832, 50 iterations in 45.4050 sec
Iteration 200, KL divergence 7.8977, 50 iterations in 43.9690 sec
Iteration 250, KL divergence 7.8511, 50 iterations in 44.4052 sec
--> Time elapsed: 223.13 seconds
===> Running optimization with exaggeration=1.00, lr=108843.92 for 500 iterations...
Iteration 50, KL divergence 6.4946, 50 iterations in 43.9199 sec
Iteration 100, KL divergence 5.9617, 50 iterations in 43.6204 sec
Iteration 150, KL divergence 5.6756, 50 iterations in 44.2530 sec
Iteration 200, KL divergence 5.4932, 50 iterations in 45.1531 sec
Iteration 250, KL divergence 5.3658, 50 iterations in 47.1845 sec
Iteration 300, KL divergence 5.2714, 50 iterations in 47.4659 sec
Iteration 350, KL divergence 5.1981, 50 iterations in 49.2679 sec
Iteration 400, KL divergence 5.1394, 50 iterations in 49.6450 sec
Iteration 450, KL divergence 5.0913, 50 iterations in 51.5995 sec
Iteration 500, KL divergence 5.0511, 50 iterations in 53.0170 sec
--> Time elapsed: 475.13 seconds
CPU times: user 3h 21min 43s, sys: 5min 53s, total: 3h 27min 37s
Wall time: 11min 41s
```

This doesn’t look too great. The cluster separation is quite poor and the visualization is visually not very appealing.

## Using larger exaggeration¶

Exaggeration can be used in order to get better separation between clusters. Let’s see if that helps.

```
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TSNE(exaggeration=4, n_jobs=32, verbose=True)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
===> Running optimization with exaggeration=12.00, lr=108843.92 for 250 iterations...
Iteration 50, KL divergence 8.9036, 50 iterations in 41.3583 sec
Iteration 100, KL divergence 8.1739, 50 iterations in 44.0357 sec
Iteration 150, KL divergence 7.9831, 50 iterations in 44.8030 sec
Iteration 200, KL divergence 7.8978, 50 iterations in 44.5963 sec
Iteration 250, KL divergence 7.8511, 50 iterations in 44.0719 sec
--> Time elapsed: 218.87 seconds
===> Running optimization with exaggeration=4.00, lr=108843.92 for 500 iterations...
Iteration 50, KL divergence 7.0117, 50 iterations in 44.1787 sec
Iteration 100, KL divergence 6.8478, 50 iterations in 44.2544 sec
Iteration 150, KL divergence 6.7850, 50 iterations in 43.0467 sec
Iteration 200, KL divergence 6.7506, 50 iterations in 43.1292 sec
Iteration 250, KL divergence 6.7289, 50 iterations in 42.3653 sec
Iteration 300, KL divergence 6.7142, 50 iterations in 43.3017 sec
Iteration 350, KL divergence 6.7036, 50 iterations in 43.1021 sec
Iteration 400, KL divergence 6.6955, 50 iterations in 42.4524 sec
Iteration 450, KL divergence 6.6884, 50 iterations in 42.3116 sec
Iteration 500, KL divergence 6.6812, 50 iterations in 42.7694 sec
--> Time elapsed: 430.92 seconds
CPU times: user 3h 23min 13s, sys: 5min 47s, total: 3h 29min
Wall time: 10min 53s
```

The separation has improved quite a bit, but many clusters are still intertwined with others.

## Using a larger perplexity¶

```
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TSNE(n_jobs=32, verbose=True)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
===> Running optimization with exaggeration=12.00, lr=108843.92 for 250 iterations...
Iteration 50, KL divergence 6.6121, 50 iterations in 155.4301 sec
Iteration 100, KL divergence 6.0752, 50 iterations in 155.6532 sec
Iteration 150, KL divergence 5.9787, 50 iterations in 155.2036 sec
Iteration 200, KL divergence 5.9415, 50 iterations in 158.4592 sec
Iteration 250, KL divergence 5.9224, 50 iterations in 164.1987 sec
--> Time elapsed: 788.95 seconds
===> Running optimization with exaggeration=1.00, lr=108843.92 for 500 iterations...
Iteration 50, KL divergence 4.4697, 50 iterations in 156.9712 sec
Iteration 100, KL divergence 4.0495, 50 iterations in 157.9296 sec
Iteration 150, KL divergence 3.8464, 50 iterations in 168.0550 sec
Iteration 200, KL divergence 3.7248, 50 iterations in 166.4940 sec
Iteration 250, KL divergence 3.6438, 50 iterations in 166.7832 sec
Iteration 300, KL divergence 3.5860, 50 iterations in 174.2202 sec
Iteration 350, KL divergence 3.5434, 50 iterations in 172.8181 sec
Iteration 400, KL divergence 3.5106, 50 iterations in 167.7604 sec
Iteration 450, KL divergence 3.4848, 50 iterations in 163.7755 sec
Iteration 500, KL divergence 3.4639, 50 iterations in 169.2613 sec
--> Time elapsed: 1664.07 seconds
CPU times: user 19h 11min 10s, sys: 6min 32s, total: 19h 17min 43s
Wall time: 41min 18s
```

## … with higher exaggeration¶

```
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TSNE(exaggeration=4, n_jobs=32, verbose=True)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
===> Running optimization with exaggeration=12.00, lr=108843.92 for 250 iterations...
Iteration 50, KL divergence 6.6121, 50 iterations in 165.1051 sec
Iteration 100, KL divergence 6.0752, 50 iterations in 170.2804 sec
Iteration 150, KL divergence 5.9787, 50 iterations in 167.2433 sec
Iteration 200, KL divergence 5.9415, 50 iterations in 167.1109 sec
Iteration 250, KL divergence 5.9224, 50 iterations in 166.6234 sec
--> Time elapsed: 836.37 seconds
===> Running optimization with exaggeration=4.00, lr=108843.92 for 500 iterations...
Iteration 50, KL divergence 5.0955, 50 iterations in 165.1969 sec
Iteration 100, KL divergence 4.9934, 50 iterations in 167.7396 sec
Iteration 150, KL divergence 4.9625, 50 iterations in 166.0314 sec
Iteration 200, KL divergence 4.9504, 50 iterations in 165.1204 sec
Iteration 250, KL divergence 4.9438, 50 iterations in 164.4031 sec
Iteration 300, KL divergence 4.9396, 50 iterations in 165.8241 sec
Iteration 350, KL divergence 4.9365, 50 iterations in 164.0402 sec
Iteration 400, KL divergence 4.9342, 50 iterations in 163.1385 sec
Iteration 450, KL divergence 4.9322, 50 iterations in 162.8973 sec
Iteration 500, KL divergence 4.9307, 50 iterations in 163.9869 sec
--> Time elapsed: 1648.38 seconds
CPU times: user 19h 55min 34s, sys: 6min 25s, total: 20h 1min 59s
Wall time: 41min 57s
```

## Initialize via downsampling¶

We now perform the sample-transform trick we described above.

### Create train/test split¶

### Create sample embedding¶

```
===> Finding 1500 nearest neighbors using Annoy approximate search using euclidean distance...
--> Time elapsed: 14.00 seconds
===> Calculating affinity matrix...
--> Time elapsed: 5.66 seconds
CPU times: user 4min 17s, sys: 3.09 s, total: 4min 20s
Wall time: 19.7 s
```

```
CPU times: user 1.66 s, sys: 96 ms, total: 1.76 s
Wall time: 86.1 ms
```

```
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TSNE(n_jobs=32, verbose=True)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
===> Running optimization with exaggeration=12.00, lr=2083.33 for 250 iterations...
Iteration 50, KL divergence 3.2514, 50 iterations in 2.8158 sec
Iteration 100, KL divergence 3.0818, 50 iterations in 2.8074 sec
Iteration 150, KL divergence 3.0695, 50 iterations in 2.8865 sec
Iteration 200, KL divergence 3.0668, 50 iterations in 2.7726 sec
Iteration 250, KL divergence 3.0662, 50 iterations in 2.6979 sec
--> Time elapsed: 13.98 seconds
===> Running optimization with exaggeration=1.00, lr=2083.33 for 500 iterations...
Iteration 50, KL divergence 1.4430, 50 iterations in 2.8882 sec
Iteration 100, KL divergence 1.2700, 50 iterations in 2.7344 sec
Iteration 150, KL divergence 1.2087, 50 iterations in 2.7087 sec
Iteration 200, KL divergence 1.1795, 50 iterations in 2.8707 sec
Iteration 250, KL divergence 1.1639, 50 iterations in 2.9316 sec
Iteration 300, KL divergence 1.1553, 50 iterations in 3.0808 sec
Iteration 350, KL divergence 1.1490, 50 iterations in 3.0691 sec
Iteration 400, KL divergence 1.1456, 50 iterations in 3.2036 sec
Iteration 450, KL divergence 1.1433, 50 iterations in 3.2834 sec
Iteration 500, KL divergence 1.1413, 50 iterations in 3.2604 sec
--> Time elapsed: 30.04 seconds
CPU times: user 22min 52s, sys: 35.3 s, total: 23min 27s
Wall time: 44.5 s
```

### Learn the full embedding¶

```
===> Finding 1 nearest neighbors in existing embedding using Annoy approximate search...
--> Time elapsed: 253.76 seconds
===> Calculating affinity matrix...
--> Time elapsed: 0.93 seconds
CPU times: user 6min 35s, sys: 41.5 s, total: 7min 16s
Wall time: 4min 14s
```

```
array([1.00000000e-04, 1.15557926e-04])
```

```
===> Running optimization with exaggeration=12.00, lr=108843.92 for 500 iterations...
Iteration 50, KL divergence 8.6100, 50 iterations in 43.9514 sec
Iteration 100, KL divergence 8.0667, 50 iterations in 46.7819 sec
Iteration 150, KL divergence 7.9223, 50 iterations in 45.6121 sec
Iteration 200, KL divergence 7.8557, 50 iterations in 45.4719 sec
Iteration 250, KL divergence 7.8177, 50 iterations in 45.1488 sec
Iteration 300, KL divergence 7.7932, 50 iterations in 45.0411 sec
Iteration 350, KL divergence 7.7764, 50 iterations in 44.9336 sec
Iteration 400, KL divergence 7.7640, 50 iterations in 44.5941 sec
Iteration 450, KL divergence 7.7548, 50 iterations in 44.5967 sec
Iteration 500, KL divergence 7.7478, 50 iterations in 44.8961 sec
--> Time elapsed: 451.03 seconds
CPU times: user 2h 21min 31s, sys: 3min 51s, total: 2h 25min 23s
Wall time: 7min 33s
```

```
===> Running optimization with exaggeration=4.00, lr=108843.92 for 250 iterations...
Iteration 50, KL divergence 6.9774, 50 iterations in 45.0601 sec
Iteration 100, KL divergence 6.8239, 50 iterations in 44.5858 sec
Iteration 150, KL divergence 6.7657, 50 iterations in 43.4053 sec
Iteration 200, KL divergence 6.7341, 50 iterations in 43.8213 sec
Iteration 250, KL divergence 6.7131, 50 iterations in 43.4168 sec
--> Time elapsed: 220.29 seconds
CPU times: user 1h 10min 33s, sys: 1min 56s, total: 1h 12min 30s
Wall time: 3min 42s
```

```
===> Running optimization with exaggeration=4.00, lr=108843.92 for 250 iterations...
Iteration 50, KL divergence 6.6988, 50 iterations in 42.4042 sec
Iteration 100, KL divergence 6.6849, 50 iterations in 41.8349 sec
Iteration 150, KL divergence 6.6753, 50 iterations in 42.8223 sec
Iteration 200, KL divergence 6.6687, 50 iterations in 41.5115 sec
Iteration 250, KL divergence 6.6634, 50 iterations in 41.6096 sec
--> Time elapsed: 210.19 seconds
CPU times: user 1h 6min 54s, sys: 1min 54s, total: 1h 8min 49s
Wall time: 3min 32s
```

```
===> Running optimization with exaggeration=4.00, lr=108843.92 for 250 iterations...
Iteration 50, KL divergence 6.6576, 50 iterations in 41.6053 sec
Iteration 100, KL divergence 6.6519, 50 iterations in 41.5500 sec
Iteration 150, KL divergence 6.6474, 50 iterations in 41.7626 sec
Iteration 200, KL divergence 6.6439, 50 iterations in 42.2903 sec
Iteration 250, KL divergence 6.6410, 50 iterations in 41.6484 sec
--> Time elapsed: 208.86 seconds
CPU times: user 1h 7min 27s, sys: 1min 55s, total: 1h 9min 23s
Wall time: 3min 30s
```

## Comparison to UMAP¶

```
/home/ppolicar/local/miniconda3/envs/tsne/lib/python3.7/site-packages/numba/typed_passes.py:293: NumbaPerformanceWarning:
The keyword argument 'parallel=True' was specified but no transformation for parallel execution was possible.
To find out why, try turning on parallel diagnostics, see http://numba.pydata.org/numba-doc/latest/user/parallel.html#diagnostics for help.
File "../../../local/miniconda3/envs/tsne/lib/python3.7/site-packages/umap/rp_tree.py", line 135:
@numba.njit(fastmath=True, nogil=True, parallel=True)
def euclidean_random_projection_split(data, indices, rng_state):
^
state.func_ir.loc))
/home/ppolicar/local/miniconda3/envs/tsne/lib/python3.7/site-packages/umap/nndescent.py:92: NumbaPerformanceWarning:
The keyword argument 'parallel=True' was specified but no transformation for parallel execution was possible.
To find out why, try turning on parallel diagnostics, see http://numba.pydata.org/numba-doc/latest/user/parallel.html#diagnostics for help.
File "../../../local/miniconda3/envs/tsne/lib/python3.7/site-packages/umap/utils.py", line 409:
@numba.njit(parallel=True)
def build_candidates(current_graph, n_vertices, n_neighbors, max_candidates, rng_state):
^
current_graph, n_vertices, n_neighbors, max_candidates, rng_state
/home/ppolicar/local/miniconda3/envs/tsne/lib/python3.7/site-packages/numba/typed_passes.py:293: NumbaPerformanceWarning:
The keyword argument 'parallel=True' was specified but no transformation for parallel execution was possible.
To find out why, try turning on parallel diagnostics, see http://numba.pydata.org/numba-doc/latest/user/parallel.html#diagnostics for help.
File "../../../local/miniconda3/envs/tsne/lib/python3.7/site-packages/umap/nndescent.py", line 47:
@numba.njit(parallel=True)
def nn_descent(
^
state.func_ir.loc))
```

```
CPU times: user 6h 30min 53s, sys: 9min 34s, total: 6h 40min 27s
Wall time: 1h 6min 49s
```