# Source code for openTSNE.tsne

```
import inspect
import logging
import multiprocessing
from collections import Iterable
from types import SimpleNamespace
from time import time
import numpy as np
from sklearn.base import BaseEstimator
from openTSNE import _tsne
from openTSNE import initialization as initialization_scheme
from openTSNE.affinity import Affinities, PerplexityBasedNN
from openTSNE.quad_tree import QuadTree
from openTSNE import utils
EPSILON = np.finfo(np.float64).eps
log = logging.getLogger(__name__)
def _check_callbacks(callbacks):
if callbacks is not None:
# If list was passed, make sure all of them are actually callable
if isinstance(callbacks, Iterable):
if any(not callable(c) for c in callbacks):
raise ValueError("`callbacks` must contain callable objects!")
# The gradient descent method deals with lists
elif callable(callbacks):
callbacks = (callbacks,)
else:
raise ValueError("`callbacks` must be a callable object!")
return callbacks
def _handle_nice_params(embedding: np.ndarray, optim_params: dict) -> None:
"""Convert the user friendly params into something the optimizer can
understand."""
# Handle callbacks
optim_params["callbacks"] = _check_callbacks(optim_params.get("callbacks"))
optim_params["use_callbacks"] = optim_params["callbacks"] is not None
# Handle negative gradient method
negative_gradient_method = optim_params.pop("negative_gradient_method")
if callable(negative_gradient_method):
negative_gradient_method = negative_gradient_method
elif negative_gradient_method in {"bh", "BH", "barnes-hut"}:
negative_gradient_method = kl_divergence_bh
elif negative_gradient_method in {"fft", "FFT", "interpolation"}:
negative_gradient_method = kl_divergence_fft
else:
raise ValueError(
"Unrecognized gradient method. Please choose one of "
"the supported methods or provide a valid callback."
)
# `gradient_descent` uses the more informative name `objective_function`
optim_params["objective_function"] = negative_gradient_method
# Handle number of jobs
n_jobs = optim_params.get("n_jobs", 1)
if n_jobs < 0:
n_cores = multiprocessing.cpu_count()
# Add negative number of n_jobs to the number of cores, but increment by
# one because -1 indicates using all cores, -2 all except one, and so on
n_jobs = n_cores + n_jobs + 1
# If the number of jobs, after this correction is still <= 0, then the user
# probably thought they had more cores, so we'll default to 1
if n_jobs <= 0:
log.warning(
"`n_jobs` receieved value %d but only %d cores are available. "
"Defaulting to single job." % (optim_params["n_jobs"], n_cores)
)
n_jobs = 1
optim_params["n_jobs"] = n_jobs
# Determine learning rate if requested
if optim_params.get("learning_rate", "auto") == "auto":
optim_params["learning_rate"] = max(200, embedding.shape[0] / 12)
def __check_init_num_samples(num_samples, required_num_samples):
if num_samples != required_num_samples:
raise ValueError(
"The provided initialization contains a different number "
"of points (%d) than the data provided (%d)."
% (num_samples, required_num_samples)
)
def __check_init_num_dimensions(num_dimensions, required_num_dimensions):
if num_dimensions != required_num_dimensions:
raise ValueError(
"The provided initialization contains a different number "
"of components (%d) than the embedding (%d)."
% (num_dimensions, required_num_dimensions)
)
init_checks = SimpleNamespace(
num_samples=__check_init_num_samples, num_dimensions=__check_init_num_dimensions,
)
[docs]class OptimizationInterrupt(InterruptedError):
"""Optimization was interrupted by a callback.
Parameters
----------
error: float
The KL divergence of the embedding.
final_embedding: Union[TSNEEmbedding, PartialTSNEEmbedding]
Is either a partial or full embedding, depending on where the error was
raised.
"""
def __init__(self, error, final_embedding):
super().__init__()
self.error = error
self.final_embedding = final_embedding
[docs]class PartialTSNEEmbedding(np.ndarray):
"""A partial t-SNE embedding.
A partial embedding is created when we take an existing
:class:`TSNEEmbedding` and embed new samples into the embedding space. It
differs from the typical embedding in that it is not possible to add new
samples to a partial embedding and would generally be a bad idea.
Please see the :ref:`parameter-guide` for more information.
Parameters
----------
embedding: np.ndarray
Initial positions for each data point.
reference_embedding: TSNEEmbedding
The embedding into which the new samples are to be added.
P : array_like
An :math:`N \\times M` affinity matrix containing the affinities from
each new data point :math:`n` to each data point in the existing
embedding :math:`m`.
learning_rate: Union[str, float]
The learning rate for t-SNE optimization. When ``learning_rate="auto"``
the appropriate learning rate is selected according to max(200, N / 12)
as determined in Belkina et al. (2019), Nature Communications. Note that
this should *not* be used when adding samples into existing embeddings,
where the learning rate often needs to be much lower to obtain
convergence.
exaggeration: float
The exaggeration factor is used to increase the attractive forces of
nearby points, producing more compact clusters.
momentum: float
Momentum accounts for gradient directions from previous iterations,
resulting in faster convergence.
negative_gradient_method: str
Specifies the negative gradient approximation method to use. For smaller
data sets, the Barnes-Hut approximation is appropriate and can be set
using one of the following aliases: ``bh``, ``BH`` or ``barnes-hut``.
For larger data sets, the FFT accelerated interpolation method is more
appropriate and can be set using one of the following aliases: ``fft``,
``FFT`` or ``ìnterpolation``.
theta: float
This is the trade-off parameter between speed and accuracy of the tree
approximation method. Typical values range from 0.2 to 0.8. The value 0
indicates that no approximation is to be made and produces exact results
also producing longer runtime.
n_interpolation_points: int
Only used when ``negative_gradient_method="fft"`` or its other aliases.
The number of interpolation points to use within each grid cell for
interpolation based t-SNE. It is highly recommended leaving this value
at the default 3.
min_num_intervals: int
Only used when ``negative_gradient_method="fft"`` or its other aliases.
The minimum number of grid cells to use, regardless of the
``ints_in_interval`` parameter. Higher values provide more accurate
gradient estimations.
random_state: Union[int, RandomState]
The random state parameter follows the convention used in scikit-learn.
If the value is an int, random_state is the seed used by the random
number generator. If the value is a RandomState instance, then it will
be used as the random number generator. If the value is None, the random
number generator is the RandomState instance used by `np.random`.
n_jobs: int
The number of threads to use while running t-SNE. This follows the
scikit-learn convention, ``-1`` meaning all processors, ``-2`` meaning
all but one, etc.
callbacks: Callable[[int, float, np.ndarray] -> bool]
Callbacks, which will be run every ``callbacks_every_iters`` iterations.
callbacks_every_iters: int
How many iterations should pass between each time the callbacks are
invoked.
optimizer: gradient_descent
Optionally, an existing optimizer can be used for optimization. This is
useful for keeping momentum gains between different calls to
:func:`optimize`.
Attributes
----------
kl_divergence: float
The KL divergence or error of the embedding.
"""
def __new__(
cls,
embedding,
reference_embedding,
P,
optimizer=None,
**gradient_descent_params,
):
init_checks.num_samples(embedding.shape[0], P.shape[0])
obj = np.asarray(embedding, dtype=np.float64, order="C").view(
PartialTSNEEmbedding
)
obj.reference_embedding = reference_embedding
obj.P = P
obj.gradient_descent_params = gradient_descent_params
if optimizer is None:
optimizer = gradient_descent()
elif not isinstance(optimizer, gradient_descent):
raise TypeError(
"`optimizer` must be an instance of `%s`, but got `%s`."
% (gradient_descent.__class__.__name__, type(optimizer))
)
obj.optimizer = optimizer
obj.kl_divergence = None
return obj
[docs] def optimize(
self,
n_iter,
inplace=False,
propagate_exception=False,
**gradient_descent_params,
):
"""Run optmization on the embedding for a given number of steps.
Parameters
----------
n_iter: int
The number of optimization iterations.
learning_rate: Union[str, float]
The learning rate for t-SNE optimization. When
``learning_rate="auto"`` the appropriate learning rate is selected
according to max(200, N / 12), as determined in Belkina et al.
"Automated optimized parameters for t-distributed stochastic
neighbor embedding improve visualization and analysis of large
datasets", 2019. Note that this should *not* be used when adding
samples into existing embeddings, where the learning rate often
needs to be much lower to obtain convergence.
exaggeration: float
The exaggeration factor is used to increase the attractive forces of
nearby points, producing more compact clusters.
momentum: float
Momentum accounts for gradient directions from previous iterations,
resulting in faster convergence.
negative_gradient_method: str
Specifies the negative gradient approximation method to use. For
smaller data sets, the Barnes-Hut approximation is appropriate and
can be set using one of the following aliases: ``bh``, ``BH`` or
``barnes-hut``. For larger data sets, the FFT accelerated
interpolation method is more appropriate and can be set using one of
the following aliases: ``fft``, ``FFT`` or ``ìnterpolation``.
theta: float
This is the trade-off parameter between speed and accuracy of the
tree approximation method. Typical values range from 0.2 to 0.8. The
value 0 indicates that no approximation is to be made and produces
exact results also producing longer runtime.
n_interpolation_points: int
Only used when ``negative_gradient_method="fft"`` or its other
aliases. The number of interpolation points to use within each grid
cell for interpolation based t-SNE. It is highly recommended leaving
this value at the default 3.
min_num_intervals: int
Only used when ``negative_gradient_method="fft"`` or its other
aliases. The minimum number of grid cells to use, regardless of the
``ints_in_interval`` parameter. Higher values provide more accurate
gradient estimations.
inplace: bool
Whether or not to create a copy of the embedding or to perform
updates inplace.
propagate_exception: bool
The optimization process can be interrupted using callbacks. This
flag indicates whether we should propagate that exception or to
simply stop optimization and return the resulting embedding.
random_state: Union[int, RandomState]
The random state parameter follows the convention used in
scikit-learn. If the value is an int, random_state is the seed used
by the random number generator. If the value is a RandomState
instance, then it will be used as the random number generator. If
the value is None, the random number generator is the RandomState
instance used by `np.random`.
n_jobs: int
The number of threads to use while running t-SNE. This follows the
scikit-learn convention, ``-1`` meaning all processors, ``-2``
meaning all but one, etc.
callbacks: Callable[[int, float, np.ndarray] -> bool]
Callbacks, which will be run every ``callbacks_every_iters``
iterations.
callbacks_every_iters: int
How many iterations should pass between each time the callbacks are
invoked.
Returns
-------
PartialTSNEEmbedding
An optimized partial t-SNE embedding.
Raises
------
OptimizationInterrupt
If a callback stops the optimization and the ``propagate_exception``
flag is set, then an exception is raised.
"""
# Typically we want to return a new embedding and keep the old one intact
if inplace:
embedding = self
else:
embedding = PartialTSNEEmbedding(
np.copy(self),
self.reference_embedding,
self.P,
optimizer=self.optimizer.copy(),
**self.gradient_descent_params,
)
# If optimization parameters were passed to this funciton, prefer those
# over the defaults specified in the TSNE object
optim_params = dict(self.gradient_descent_params)
optim_params.update(gradient_descent_params)
optim_params["n_iter"] = n_iter
_handle_nice_params(embedding, optim_params)
try:
# Run gradient descent with the embedding optimizer so gains are
# properly updated and kept
error, embedding = embedding.optimizer(
embedding=embedding,
reference_embedding=self.reference_embedding,
P=self.P,
**optim_params,
)
except OptimizationInterrupt as ex:
log.info("Optimization was interrupted with callback.")
if propagate_exception:
raise ex
error, embedding = ex.error, ex.final_embedding
embedding.kl_divergence = error
return embedding
[docs]class TSNEEmbedding(np.ndarray):
"""A t-SNE embedding.
Please see the :ref:`parameter-guide` for more information.
Parameters
----------
embedding: np.ndarray
Initial positions for each data point.
affinities: Affinities
An affinity index which can be used to compute the affinities of new
points to the points in the existing embedding. The affinity index also
contains the affinity matrix :math:`P` used during optimization.
learning_rate: Union[str, float]
The learning rate for t-SNE optimization. When ``learning_rate="auto"``
the appropriate learning rate is selected according to max(200, N / 12),
as determined in Belkina et al. "Automated optimized parameters for
T-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding improve visualization and
analysis of large datasets", 2019.
exaggeration: float
The exaggeration factor is used to increase the attractive forces of
nearby points, producing more compact clusters.
dof: float
Degrees of freedom as described in Kobak et al. "Heavy-tailed kernels
reveal a finer cluster structure in t-SNE visualisations", 2019.
momentum: float
Momentum accounts for gradient directions from previous iterations,
resulting in faster convergence.
negative_gradient_method: str
Specifies the negative gradient approximation method to use. For smaller
data sets, the Barnes-Hut approximation is appropriate and can be set
using one of the following aliases: ``bh``, ``BH`` or ``barnes-hut``.
For larger data sets, the FFT accelerated interpolation method is more
appropriate and can be set using one of the following aliases: ``fft``,
``FFT`` or ``ìnterpolation``.
theta: float
This is the trade-off parameter between speed and accuracy of the tree
approximation method. Typical values range from 0.2 to 0.8. The value 0
indicates that no approximation is to be made and produces exact results
also producing longer runtime.
n_interpolation_points: int
Only used when ``negative_gradient_method="fft"`` or its other aliases.
The number of interpolation points to use within each grid cell for
interpolation based t-SNE. It is highly recommended leaving this value
at the default 3.
min_num_intervals: int
Only used when ``negative_gradient_method="fft"`` or its other aliases.
The minimum number of grid cells to use, regardless of the
``ints_in_interval`` parameter. Higher values provide more accurate
gradient estimations.
random_state: Union[int, RandomState]
The random state parameter follows the convention used in scikit-learn.
If the value is an int, random_state is the seed used by the random
number generator. If the value is a RandomState instance, then it will
be used as the random number generator. If the value is None, the random
number generator is the RandomState instance used by `np.random`.
n_jobs: int
The number of threads to use while running t-SNE. This follows the
scikit-learn convention, ``-1`` meaning all processors, ``-2`` meaning
all but one, etc.
callbacks: Callable[[int, float, np.ndarray] -> bool]
Callbacks, which will be run every ``callbacks_every_iters`` iterations.
callbacks_every_iters: int
How many iterations should pass between each time the callbacks are
invoked.
optimizer: gradient_descent
Optionally, an existing optimizer can be used for optimization. This is
useful for keeping momentum gains between different calls to
:func:`optimize`.
Attributes
----------
kl_divergence: float
The KL divergence or error of the embedding.
"""
def __new__(
cls,
embedding,
affinities,
dof=1,
n_interpolation_points=3,
min_num_intervals=50,
ints_in_interval=1,
negative_gradient_method="fft",
random_state=None,
optimizer=None,
**gradient_descent_params,
):
init_checks.num_samples(embedding.shape[0], affinities.P.shape[0])
obj = np.asarray(embedding, dtype=np.float64, order="C").view(TSNEEmbedding)
obj.affinities = affinities # type: Affinities
obj.gradient_descent_params = gradient_descent_params # type: dict
obj.gradient_descent_params.update({
"negative_gradient_method": negative_gradient_method,
"n_interpolation_points": n_interpolation_points,
"min_num_intervals": min_num_intervals,
"ints_in_interval": ints_in_interval,
"dof": dof,
})
obj.random_state = random_state
if optimizer is None:
optimizer = gradient_descent()
elif not isinstance(optimizer, gradient_descent):
raise TypeError(
"`optimizer` must be an instance of `%s`, but got `%s`."
% (gradient_descent.__class__.__name__, type(optimizer))
)
obj.optimizer = optimizer
obj.kl_divergence = None
# Interpolation grid variables
obj.interp_coeffs = None
obj.box_x_lower_bounds = None
obj.box_y_lower_bounds = None
return obj
[docs] def optimize(
self,
n_iter,
inplace=False,
propagate_exception=False,
**gradient_descent_params,
):
"""Run optmization on the embedding for a given number of steps.
Please see the :ref:`parameter-guide` for more information.
Parameters
----------
n_iter: int
The number of optimization iterations.
learning_rate: Union[str, float]
The learning rate for t-SNE optimization. When
``learning_rate="auto"`` the appropriate learning rate is selected
according to max(200, N / 12), as determined in Belkina et al.
"Automated optimized parameters for t-distributed stochastic
neighbor embedding improve visualization and analysis of large
datasets", 2019.
exaggeration: float
The exaggeration factor is used to increase the attractive forces of
nearby points, producing more compact clusters.
dof: float
Degrees of freedom as described in Kobak et al. "Heavy-tailed kernels
reveal a finer cluster structure in t-SNE visualisations", 2019.
momentum: float
Momentum accounts for gradient directions from previous iterations,
resulting in faster convergence.
negative_gradient_method: str
Specifies the negative gradient approximation method to use. For
smaller data sets, the Barnes-Hut approximation is appropriate and
can be set using one of the following aliases: ``bh``, ``BH`` or
``barnes-hut``. For larger data sets, the FFT accelerated
interpolation method is more appropriate and can be set using one of
the following aliases: ``fft``, ``FFT`` or ``ìnterpolation``.
theta: float
This is the trade-off parameter between speed and accuracy of the
tree approximation method. Typical values range from 0.2 to 0.8. The
value 0 indicates that no approximation is to be made and produces
exact results also producing longer runtime.
n_interpolation_points: int
Only used when ``negative_gradient_method="fft"`` or its other
aliases. The number of interpolation points to use within each grid
cell for interpolation based t-SNE. It is highly recommended leaving
this value at the default 3.
min_num_intervals: int
Only used when ``negative_gradient_method="fft"`` or its other
aliases. The minimum number of grid cells to use, regardless of the
``ints_in_interval`` parameter. Higher values provide more accurate
gradient estimations.
inplace: bool
Whether or not to create a copy of the embedding or to perform
updates inplace.
propagate_exception: bool
The optimization process can be interrupted using callbacks. This
flag indicates whether we should propagate that exception or to
simply stop optimization and return the resulting embedding.
max_grad_norm: float
Maximum gradient norm. If the norm exceeds this value, it will be
clipped. This is most beneficial when adding points into an existing
embedding and the new points overlap with the reference points,
leading to large gradients. This can make points "shoot off" from
the embedding, causing the interpolation method to compute a very
large grid, and leads to worse results.
max_step_norm: float
Maximum update norm. If the norm exceeds this value, it will be
clipped. This prevents points from "shooting off" from
the embedding.
random_state: Union[int, RandomState]
The random state parameter follows the convention used in
scikit-learn. If the value is an int, random_state is the seed used
by the random number generator. If the value is a RandomState
instance, then it will be used as the random number generator. If
the value is None, the random number generator is the RandomState
instance used by `np.random`.
n_jobs: int
The number of threads to use while running t-SNE. This follows the
scikit-learn convention, ``-1`` meaning all processors, ``-2``
meaning all but one, etc.
callbacks: Callable[[int, float, np.ndarray] -> bool]
Callbacks, which will be run every ``callbacks_every_iters``
iterations.
callbacks_every_iters: int
How many iterations should pass between each time the callbacks are
invoked.
Returns
-------
TSNEEmbedding
An optimized t-SNE embedding.
Raises
------
OptimizationInterrupt
If a callback stops the optimization and the ``propagate_exception``
flag is set, then an exception is raised.
"""
# Typically we want to return a new embedding and keep the old one intact
if inplace:
embedding = self
else:
embedding = TSNEEmbedding(
np.copy(self),
self.affinities,
random_state=self.random_state,
optimizer=self.optimizer.copy(),
**self.gradient_descent_params,
)
# If optimization parameters were passed to this funciton, prefer those
# over the defaults specified in the TSNE object
optim_params = dict(self.gradient_descent_params)
optim_params.update(gradient_descent_params)
optim_params["n_iter"] = n_iter
_handle_nice_params(embedding, optim_params)
try:
# Run gradient descent with the embedding optimizer so gains are
# properly updated and kept
error, embedding = embedding.optimizer(
embedding=embedding, P=self.affinities.P, **optim_params
)
except OptimizationInterrupt as ex:
log.info("Optimization was interrupted with callback.")
if propagate_exception:
raise ex
error, embedding = ex.error, ex.final_embedding
embedding.kl_divergence = error
return embedding
[docs] def transform(
self,
X,
perplexity=5,
initialization="median",
k=25,
learning_rate=0.1,
early_exaggeration=4,
early_exaggeration_iter=0,
exaggeration=1.5,
n_iter=250,
initial_momentum=0.5,
final_momentum=0.8,
max_grad_norm=0.25,
max_step_norm=None,
):
"""Embed new points into the existing embedding.
This procedure optimizes each point only with respect to the existing
embedding i.e. it ignores any interactions between the points in ``X``
among themselves.
Please see the :ref:`parameter-guide` for more information.
Parameters
----------
X: np.ndarray
The data matrix to be added to the existing embedding.
perplexity: float
Perplexity can be thought of as the continuous :math:`k` number of
nearest neighbors, for which t-SNE will attempt to preserve
distances. However, when transforming, we only consider neighbors in
the existing embedding i.e. each data point is placed into the
embedding, independently of other new data points.
initialization: Union[np.ndarray, str]
The initial point positions to be used in the embedding space. Can
be a precomputed numpy array, ``median``, ``weighted`` or
``random``. In all cases, ``median`` of ``weighted`` should be
preferred.
k: int
The number of nearest neighbors to consider when initially placing
the point onto the embedding. This is different from ``perpelxity``
because perplexity affects optimization while this only affects the
initial point positions.
learning_rate: Union[str, float]
The learning rate for t-SNE optimization. When
``learning_rate="auto"`` the appropriate learning rate is selected
according to max(200, N / 12), as determined in Belkina et al.
"Automated optimized parameters for t-distributed stochastic
neighbor embedding improve visualization and analysis of large
datasets", 2019. Note that this should *not* be used when adding
samples into existing embeddings, where the learning rate often
needs to be much lower to obtain convergence.
early_exaggeration_iter: int
The number of iterations to run in the *early exaggeration* phase.
early_exaggeration: float
The exaggeration factor to use during the *early exaggeration* phase.
Typical values range from 12 to 32.
n_iter: int
The number of iterations to run in the normal optimization regime.
exaggeration: float
The exaggeration factor to use during the normal optimization phase.
This can be used to form more densely packed clusters and is useful
for large data sets.
initial_momentum: float
The momentum to use during the *early exaggeration* phase.
final_momentum: float
The momentum to use during the normal optimization phase.
max_grad_norm: float
Maximum gradient norm. If the norm exceeds this value, it will be
clipped. This is most beneficial when adding points into an existing
embedding and the new points overlap with the reference points,
leading to large gradients. This can make points "shoot off" from
the embedding, causing the interpolation method to compute a very
large grid, and leads to worse results.
max_step_norm: float
Maximum update norm. If the norm exceeds this value, it will be
clipped. This prevents points from "shooting off" from
the embedding.
Returns
-------
PartialTSNEEmbedding
The positions of the new points in the embedding space.
"""
# We check if the affinity `to_new` methods takes the `perplexity`
# parameter and raise an informative error if not. This happes when the
# user uses a non-standard affinity class e.g. multiscale, then attempts
# to add points via `transform`. These classes take `perplexities` and
# fail
affinity_signature = inspect.signature(self.affinities.to_new)
if "perplexity" not in affinity_signature.parameters:
raise TypeError(
"`transform` currently does not support non `%s` type affinity "
"classes. Please use `prepare_partial` and `optimize` to add "
"points to the embedding." % PerplexityBasedNN.__name__
)
# Center the current embedding
self -= (np.max(self, axis=0) + np.min(self, axis=0)) / 2
embedding = self.prepare_partial(
X, perplexity=perplexity, initialization=initialization, k=k
)
try:
embedding.optimize(
n_iter=early_exaggeration_iter,
learning_rate=learning_rate,
exaggeration=early_exaggeration,
momentum=initial_momentum,
inplace=True,
propagate_exception=True,
max_grad_norm=max_grad_norm,
max_step_norm=max_step_norm,
)
embedding.optimize(
n_iter=n_iter,
learning_rate=learning_rate,
exaggeration=exaggeration,
momentum=final_momentum,
inplace=True,
propagate_exception=True,
max_grad_norm=max_grad_norm,
max_step_norm=max_step_norm,
)
except OptimizationInterrupt as ex:
log.info("Optimization was interrupted with callback.")
embedding = ex.final_embedding
return embedding
[docs] def prepare_partial(self, X, initialization="median", k=25, **affinity_params):
"""Prepare a partial embedding which can be optimized.
Parameters
----------
X: np.ndarray
The data matrix to be added to the existing embedding.
initialization: Union[np.ndarray, str]
The initial point positions to be used in the embedding space. Can
be a precomputed numpy array, ``median``, ``weighted`` or
``random``. In all cases, ``median`` of ``weighted`` should be
preferred.
k: int
The number of nearest neighbors to consider when initially placing
the point onto the embedding. This is different from ``perpelxity``
because perplexity affects optimization while this only affects the
initial point positions.
**affinity_params: dict
Additional params to be passed to the ``Affinities.to_new`` method.
Please see individual :class:`~openTSNE.affinity.Affinities`
implementations as the parameters differ between implementations.
Returns
-------
PartialTSNEEmbedding
An unoptimized :class:`PartialTSNEEmbedding` object, prepared for
optimization.
"""
P, neighbors, distances = self.affinities.to_new(
X, return_distances=True, **affinity_params
)
# If initial positions are given in an array, use a copy of that
if isinstance(initialization, np.ndarray):
init_checks.num_samples(initialization.shape[0], X.shape[0])
init_checks.num_dimensions(initialization.shape[1], self.shape[1])
embedding = np.array(initialization)
# Random initialization with isotropic normal distribution
elif initialization == "random":
embedding = initialization_scheme.random(
X, self.shape[1], self.random_state
)
elif initialization == "weighted":
embedding = initialization_scheme.weighted_mean(
X, self, neighbors[:, :k], distances[:, :k]
)
elif initialization == "median":
embedding = initialization_scheme.median(self, neighbors[:, :k])
else:
raise ValueError(f"Unrecognized initialization scheme `{initialization}`.")
return PartialTSNEEmbedding(
embedding, self, P=P, **self.gradient_descent_params,
)
[docs] def prepare_interpolation_grid(self, padding=0.25):
"""Evaluate and save the interpolation grid coefficients.
Parameters
----------
padding: float
During standard optimization, the grid hugs the embedding points as
closely as possible, but this is not what we want when performing
transform. This paraemter specifies how much empty space should be
appended in each dimension. The values are given in percentages.
"""
# Center embedding into our grid
self -= (np.max(self, axis=0) + np.min(self, axis=0)) / 2
if self.shape[1] == 1:
f = _tsne.prepare_negative_gradient_fft_interpolation_grid_1d
elif self.shape[1] == 2:
f = _tsne.prepare_negative_gradient_fft_interpolation_grid_2d
else:
raise RuntimeError("Cannot prepare interpolation grid for >2d embeddings")
result = f(
self.ravel() if self.shape[1] == 1 else self,
self.gradient_descent_params["n_interpolation_points"],
self.gradient_descent_params["min_num_intervals"],
self.gradient_descent_params["ints_in_interval"],
self.gradient_descent_params["dof"],
padding=padding,
)
if len(result) == 2: # 1d case
self.interp_coeffs, self.box_x_lower_bounds = result
elif len(result) == 3: # 2d case
self.interp_coeffs, self.box_x_lower_bounds, self.box_y_lower_bounds = result
else:
raise RuntimeError(
"Prepare interpolation grid function returned >3 values!"
)
def __reduce__(self):
state = super().__reduce__()
new_state = state[2] + (
self.affinities,
self.gradient_descent_params,
self.random_state,
self.kl_divergence,
self.interp_coeffs,
self.box_x_lower_bounds,
self.box_y_lower_bounds,
)
return state[0], state[1], new_state
def __setstate__(self, state):
self.box_y_lower_bounds = state[-1]
self.box_x_lower_bounds = state[-2]
self.interp_coeffs = state[-3]
self.kl_divergence = state[-4]
self.random_state = state[-5]
self.gradient_descent_params = state[-6]
self.affinities = state[-7]
super().__setstate__(state[0:-7])
[docs]class TSNE(BaseEstimator):
"""t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding.
Please see the :ref:`parameter-guide` for more information.
Parameters
----------
n_components: int
The dimension of the embedding space. This deafults to 2 for easy
visualization, but sometimes 1 is used for t-SNE heatmaps. t-SNE is
not designed to embed into higher dimension and please note that
acceleration schemes break down and are not fully implemented.
perplexity: float
Perplexity can be thought of as the continuous :math:`k` number of
nearest neighbors, for which t-SNE will attempt to preserve distances.
learning_rate: Union[str, float]
The learning rate for t-SNE optimization. When ``learning_rate="auto"``
the appropriate learning rate is selected according to max(200, N / 12),
as determined in Belkina et al. "Automated optimized parameters for
T-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding improve visualization and
analysis of large datasets", 2019.
early_exaggeration_iter: int
The number of iterations to run in the *early exaggeration* phase.
early_exaggeration: float
The exaggeration factor to use during the *early exaggeration* phase.
Typical values range from 12 to 32.
n_iter: int
The number of iterations to run in the normal optimization regime.
exaggeration: float
The exaggeration factor to use during the normal optimization phase.
This can be used to form more densely packed clusters and is useful
for large data sets.
dof: float
Degrees of freedom as described in Kobak et al. "Heavy-tailed kernels
reveal a finer cluster structure in t-SNE visualisations", 2019.
theta: float
Only used when ``negative_gradient_method="bh"`` or its other aliases.
This is the trade-off parameter between speed and accuracy of the tree
approximation method. Typical values range from 0.2 to 0.8. The value 0
indicates that no approximation is to be made and produces exact results
also producing longer runtime.
n_interpolation_points: int
Only used when ``negative_gradient_method="fft"`` or its other aliases.
The number of interpolation points to use within each grid cell for
interpolation based t-SNE. It is highly recommended leaving this value
at the default 3.
min_num_intervals: int
Only used when ``negative_gradient_method="fft"`` or its other aliases.
The minimum number of grid cells to use, regardless of the
``ints_in_interval`` parameter. Higher values provide more accurate
gradient estimations.
ints_in_interval: float
Only used when ``negative_gradient_method="fft"`` or its other aliases.
Indicates how large a grid cell should be e.g. a value of 3 indicates a
grid side length of 3. Lower values provide more accurate gradient
estimations.
initialization: Union[np.ndarray, str]
The initial point positions to be used in the embedding space. Can be a
precomputed numpy array, ``pca``, ``spectral`` or ``random``. Please
note that when passing in a precomputed positions, it is highly
recommended that the point positions have small variance
(std(Y) < 0.0001), otherwise you may get poor embeddings.
metric: Union[str, Callable]
The metric to be used to compute affinities between points in the
original space.
metric_params: dict
Additional keyword arguments for the metric function.
initial_momentum: float
The momentum to use during the *early exaggeration* phase.
final_momentum: float
The momentum to use during the normal optimization phase.
max_grad_norm: float
Maximum gradient norm. If the norm exceeds this value, it will be
clipped. This is most beneficial when adding points into an existing
embedding and the new points overlap with the reference points,
leading to large gradients. This can make points "shoot off" from
the embedding, causing the interpolation method to compute a very
large grid, and leads to worse results.
max_step_norm: float
Maximum update norm. If the norm exceeds this value, it will be
clipped. This prevents points from "shooting off" from
the embedding.
n_jobs: int
The number of threads to use while running t-SNE. This follows the
scikit-learn convention, ``-1`` meaning all processors, ``-2`` meaning
all but one, etc.
affinities: openTSNE.affinity.Affinities
A precomputed affinity object. If specified, other affinity-related
parameters are ignored e.g. `perplexity` and anything nearest-neighbor
search related.
neighbors: str
Specifies the nearest neighbor method to use. Can be ``exact``, ``annoy``,
``pynndescent``, ``approx``, or ``auto`` (default). ``approx`` uses Annoy
if the input data matrix is not a sparse object and if Annoy supports
the given metric. Otherwise it uses Pynndescent. ``auto`` uses exact
nearest neighbors for N<1000 and the same heuristic as ``approx`` for N>=1000.
negative_gradient_method: str
Specifies the negative gradient approximation method to use. For smaller
data sets, the Barnes-Hut approximation is appropriate and can be set
using one of the following aliases: ``bh``, ``BH`` or ``barnes-hut``.
For larger data sets, the FFT accelerated interpolation method is more
appropriate and can be set using one of the following aliases: ``fft``,
``FFT`` or ``ìnterpolation``.
callbacks: Union[Callable, List[Callable]]
Callbacks, which will be run every ``callbacks_every_iters`` iterations.
callbacks_every_iters: int
How many iterations should pass between each time the callbacks are
invoked.
random_state: Union[int, RandomState]
If the value is an int, random_state is the seed used by the random
number generator. If the value is a RandomState instance, then it will
be used as the random number generator. If the value is None, the random
number generator is the RandomState instance used by `np.random`.
verbose: bool
"""
def __init__(
self,
n_components=2,
perplexity=30,
learning_rate="auto",
early_exaggeration_iter=250,
early_exaggeration=12,
n_iter=500,
exaggeration=None,
dof=1,
theta=0.5,
n_interpolation_points=3,
min_num_intervals=50,
ints_in_interval=1,
initialization="pca",
metric="euclidean",
metric_params=None,
initial_momentum=0.5,
final_momentum=0.8,
max_grad_norm=None,
max_step_norm=5,
n_jobs=1,
affinities=None,
neighbors="auto",
negative_gradient_method="fft",
callbacks=None,
callbacks_every_iters=50,
random_state=None,
verbose=False,
):
self.n_components = n_components
self.perplexity = perplexity
self.learning_rate = learning_rate
self.early_exaggeration = early_exaggeration
self.early_exaggeration_iter = early_exaggeration_iter
self.n_iter = n_iter
self.exaggeration = exaggeration
self.dof = dof
self.theta = theta
self.n_interpolation_points = n_interpolation_points
self.min_num_intervals = min_num_intervals
self.ints_in_interval = ints_in_interval
# Check if the number of components match the initialization dimension
if isinstance(initialization, np.ndarray):
init_checks.num_dimensions(initialization.shape[1], n_components)
self.initialization = initialization
self.metric = metric
self.metric_params = metric_params
self.initial_momentum = initial_momentum
self.final_momentum = final_momentum
self.max_grad_norm = max_grad_norm
self.max_step_norm = max_step_norm
self.n_jobs = n_jobs
if affinities is not None and not isinstance(affinities, Affinities):
raise ValueError(
"`affinities` must be an instance of `openTSNE.affinity.Affinities`"
)
self.affinities = affinities
self.neighbors_method = neighbors
self.negative_gradient_method = negative_gradient_method
self.callbacks = callbacks
self.callbacks_every_iters = callbacks_every_iters
self.random_state = random_state
self.verbose = verbose
[docs] def fit(self, X):
"""Fit a t-SNE embedding for a given data set.
Runs the standard t-SNE optimization, consisting of the early
exaggeration phase and a normal optimization phase.
Parameters
----------
X: np.ndarray
The data matrix to be embedded.
Returns
-------
TSNEEmbedding
A fully optimized t-SNE embedding.
"""
if self.verbose:
print("-" * 80, repr(self), "-" * 80, sep="\n")
embedding = self.prepare_initial(X)
try:
# Early exaggeration with lower momentum to allow points to find more
# easily move around and find their neighbors
embedding.optimize(
n_iter=self.early_exaggeration_iter,
exaggeration=self.early_exaggeration,
momentum=self.initial_momentum,
inplace=True,
propagate_exception=True,
)
# Restore actual affinity probabilities and increase momentum to get
# final, optimized embedding
embedding.optimize(
n_iter=self.n_iter,
exaggeration=self.exaggeration,
momentum=self.final_momentum,
inplace=True,
propagate_exception=True,
)
except OptimizationInterrupt as ex:
log.info("Optimization was interrupted with callback.")
embedding = ex.final_embedding
return embedding
[docs] def prepare_initial(self, X):
"""Prepare the initial embedding which can be optimized as needed.
Parameters
----------
X: np.ndarray
The data matrix to be embedded.
Returns
-------
TSNEEmbedding
An unoptimized :class:`TSNEEmbedding` object, prepared for
optimization.
"""
if self.affinities is None:
affinities = PerplexityBasedNN(
X,
self.perplexity,
method=self.neighbors_method,
metric=self.metric,
metric_params=self.metric_params,
n_jobs=self.n_jobs,
random_state=self.random_state,
verbose=self.verbose,
)
else:
log.info(
"Precomputed affinities provided. Ignoring perplexity-related "
"parameters."
)
affinities = self.affinities
# If initial positions are given in an array, use a copy of that
if isinstance(self.initialization, np.ndarray):
init_checks.num_samples(self.initialization.shape[0], X.shape[0])
init_checks.num_dimensions(self.initialization.shape[1], self.n_components)
embedding = np.array(self.initialization)
stddev = np.std(embedding, axis=0)
if any(stddev > 1e-2):
log.warning(
"Standard deviation of embedding is greater than 0.0001. Initial "
"embeddings with high variance may have display poor convergence."
)
elif self.initialization == "pca":
embedding = initialization_scheme.pca(
X,
self.n_components,
random_state=self.random_state,
verbose=self.verbose,
)
elif self.initialization == "random":
embedding = initialization_scheme.random(
X,
self.n_components,
random_state=self.random_state,
verbose=self.verbose,
)
elif self.initialization == "spectral":
embedding = initialization_scheme.spectral(
affinities.P,
self.n_components,
random_state=self.random_state,
verbose=self.verbose,
)
else:
raise ValueError(
f"Unrecognized initialization scheme `{self.initialization}`."
)
gradient_descent_params = {
"dof": self.dof,
"negative_gradient_method": self.negative_gradient_method,
"learning_rate": self.learning_rate,
# By default, use the momentum used in unexaggerated phase
"momentum": self.final_momentum,
# Barnes-Hut params
"theta": self.theta,
# Interpolation params
"n_interpolation_points": self.n_interpolation_points,
"min_num_intervals": self.min_num_intervals,
"ints_in_interval": self.ints_in_interval,
"max_grad_norm": self.max_grad_norm,
"max_step_norm": self.max_step_norm,
"n_jobs": self.n_jobs,
"verbose": self.verbose,
# Callback params
"callbacks": self.callbacks,
"callbacks_every_iters": self.callbacks_every_iters,
}
return TSNEEmbedding(
embedding,
affinities=affinities,
random_state=self.random_state,
**gradient_descent_params,
)
def kl_divergence_bh(
embedding,
P,
dof,
bh_params,
reference_embedding=None,
should_eval_error=False,
n_jobs=1,
**_,
):
gradient = np.zeros_like(embedding, dtype=np.float64, order="C")
# In the event that we wish to embed new points into an existing embedding
# using simple optimization, we compute optimize the new embedding points
# w.r.t. the existing embedding. Otherwise, we want to optimize the
# embedding w.r.t. itself. We've also got to make sure that the points'
# interactions don't interfere with each other
pairwise_normalization = reference_embedding is None
if reference_embedding is None:
reference_embedding = embedding
# Compute negative gradient
tree = QuadTree(reference_embedding)
sum_Q = _tsne.estimate_negative_gradient_bh(
tree,
embedding,
gradient,
**bh_params,
dof=dof,
num_threads=n_jobs,
pairwise_normalization=pairwise_normalization,
)
del tree
# Compute positive gradient
sum_P, kl_divergence_ = _tsne.estimate_positive_gradient_nn(
P.indices,
P.indptr,
P.data,
embedding,
reference_embedding,
gradient,
dof,
num_threads=n_jobs,
should_eval_error=should_eval_error,
)
# Computing positive gradients summed up only unnormalized q_ijs, so we
# have to include normalziation term separately
if should_eval_error:
kl_divergence_ += sum_P * np.log(sum_Q + EPSILON)
return kl_divergence_, gradient
def kl_divergence_fft(
embedding,
P,
dof,
fft_params,
reference_embedding=None,
should_eval_error=False,
n_jobs=1,
**_,
):
# If the interpolation grid has not yet been evaluated, do it now
if reference_embedding is not None and reference_embedding.interp_coeffs is None:
reference_embedding.prepare_interpolation_grid()
gradient = np.zeros_like(embedding, dtype=np.float64, order="C")
# Compute negative gradient.
if embedding.ndim == 1 or embedding.shape[1] == 1:
if reference_embedding is not None:
sum_Q = _tsne.estimate_negative_gradient_fft_1d_with_grid(
embedding.ravel(),
reference_embedding.ravel(),
reference_embedding.interp_coeffs,
reference_embedding.box_x_lower_bounds,
fft_params["n_interpolation_points"],
dof=dof,
)
else:
sum_Q = _tsne.estimate_negative_gradient_fft_1d(
embedding.ravel(), gradient.ravel(), **fft_params, dof=dof
)
elif embedding.shape[1] == 2:
if reference_embedding is not None:
sum_Q = _tsne.estimate_negative_gradient_fft_2d_with_grid(
embedding,
gradient,
reference_embedding.interp_coeffs,
reference_embedding.box_x_lower_bounds,
reference_embedding.box_y_lower_bounds,
fft_params["n_interpolation_points"],
dof=dof,
)
else:
sum_Q = _tsne.estimate_negative_gradient_fft_2d(
embedding, gradient, **fft_params, dof=dof
)
else:
raise RuntimeError(
"Interpolation based t-SNE for >2 dimensions is currently "
"unsupported (and generally a bad idea)"
)
# The positive gradient function needs a reference embedding always
if reference_embedding is None:
reference_embedding = embedding
# Compute positive gradient
sum_P, kl_divergence_ = _tsne.estimate_positive_gradient_nn(
P.indices,
P.indptr,
P.data,
embedding,
reference_embedding,
gradient,
dof,
num_threads=n_jobs,
should_eval_error=should_eval_error,
)
if should_eval_error:
kl_divergence_ += sum_P * np.log(sum_Q + EPSILON)
return kl_divergence_, gradient
class gradient_descent:
def __init__(self):
self.gains = None
def copy(self):
optimizer = self.__class__()
if self.gains is not None:
optimizer.gains = np.copy(self.gains)
return optimizer
def __call__(
self,
embedding,
P,
n_iter,
objective_function,
learning_rate=200,
momentum=0.5,
exaggeration=None,
dof=1,
min_gain=0.01,
max_grad_norm=None,
max_step_norm=5,
theta=0.5,
n_interpolation_points=3,
min_num_intervals=50,
ints_in_interval=1,
reference_embedding=None,
n_jobs=1,
use_callbacks=False,
callbacks=None,
callbacks_every_iters=50,
verbose=False,
):
"""Perform batch gradient descent with momentum and gains.
Parameters
----------
embedding: np.ndarray
The embedding :math:`Y`.
P: array_like
Joint probability matrix :math:`P`.
n_iter: int
The number of iterations to run for.
objective_function: Callable[..., Tuple[float, np.ndarray]]
A callable that evaluates the error and gradient for the current
embedding.
learning_rate: Union[str, float]
The learning rate for t-SNE optimization. When
``learning_rate="auto"`` the appropriate learning rate is selected
according to max(200, N / 12), as determined in Belkina et al.
"Automated optimized parameters for t-distributed stochastic
neighbor embedding improve visualization and analysis of large
datasets", 2019.
momentum: float
Momentum accounts for gradient directions from previous iterations,
resulting in faster convergence.
exaggeration: float
The exaggeration factor is used to increase the attractive forces of
nearby points, producing more compact clusters.
dof: float
Degrees of freedom of the Student's t-distribution.
min_gain: float
Minimum individual gain for each parameter.
max_grad_norm: float
Maximum gradient norm. If the norm exceeds this value, it will be
clipped. This is most beneficial when adding points into an existing
embedding and the new points overlap with the reference points,
leading to large gradients. This can make points "shoot off" from
the embedding, causing the interpolation method to compute a very
large grid, and leads to worse results.
max_step_norm: float
Maximum update norm. If the norm exceeds this value, it will be
clipped. This prevents points from "shooting off" from
the embedding.
theta: float
This is the trade-off parameter between speed and accuracy of the
tree approximation method. Typical values range from 0.2 to 0.8. The
value 0 indicates that no approximation is to be made and produces
exact results also producing longer runtime.
n_interpolation_points: int
Only used when ``negative_gradient_method="fft"`` or its other
aliases. The number of interpolation points to use within each grid
cell for interpolation based t-SNE. It is highly recommended leaving
this value at the default 3.
min_num_intervals: int
Only used when ``negative_gradient_method="fft"`` or its other
aliases. The minimum number of grid cells to use, regardless of the
``ints_in_interval`` parameter. Higher values provide more accurate
gradient estimations.
ints_in_interval: float
Only used when ``negative_gradient_method="fft"`` or its other
aliases. Indicates how large a grid cell should be e.g. a value of 3
indicates a grid side length of 3. Lower values provide more
accurate gradient estimations.
reference_embedding: np.ndarray
If we are adding points to an existing embedding, we have to compute
the gradients and errors w.r.t. the existing embedding.
n_jobs: int
The number of threads to use while running t-SNE. This follows the
scikit-learn convention, ``-1`` meaning all processors, ``-2``
meaning all but one, etc.
use_callbacks: bool
callbacks: Callable[[int, float, np.ndarray] -> bool]
Callbacks, which will be run every ``callbacks_every_iters``
iterations.
callbacks_every_iters: int
How many iterations should pass between each time the callbacks are
invoked.
Returns
-------
float
The KL divergence of the optimized embedding.
np.ndarray
The optimized embedding Y.
Raises
------
OptimizationInterrupt
If the provided callback interrupts the optimization, this is raised.
"""
assert isinstance(embedding, np.ndarray), (
"`embedding` must be an instance of `np.ndarray`. Got `%s` instead"
% type(embedding)
)
if reference_embedding is not None:
assert isinstance(reference_embedding, np.ndarray), (
"`reference_embedding` must be an instance of `np.ndarray`. Got "
"`%s` instead" % type(reference_embedding)
)
# If we're running transform and using the interpolation scheme, then we
# should limit the range where new points can go to
should_limit_range = False
if reference_embedding is not None:
if reference_embedding.box_x_lower_bounds is not None:
should_limit_range = True
lower_limit = reference_embedding.box_x_lower_bounds[0]
upper_limit = reference_embedding.box_x_lower_bounds[-1]
update = np.zeros_like(embedding)
if self.gains is None:
self.gains = np.ones_like(embedding)
bh_params = {"theta": theta}
fft_params = {
"n_interpolation_points": n_interpolation_points,
"min_num_intervals": min_num_intervals,
"ints_in_interval": ints_in_interval,
}
# Lie about the P values for bigger attraction forces
if exaggeration is None:
exaggeration = 1
if exaggeration != 1:
P *= exaggeration
# Notify the callbacks that the optimization is about to start
if isinstance(callbacks, Iterable):
for callback in callbacks:
# Only call function if present on object
getattr(callback, "optimization_about_to_start", lambda: ...)()
timer = utils.Timer(
"Running optimization with exaggeration=%.2f, lr=%.2f for %d iterations..." % (
exaggeration, learning_rate, n_iter
),
verbose=verbose,
)
timer.__enter__()
if verbose:
start_time = time()
for iteration in range(n_iter):
should_call_callback = use_callbacks and (iteration + 1) % callbacks_every_iters == 0
# Evaluate error on 50 iterations for logging, or when callbacks
should_eval_error = should_call_callback or \
(verbose and (iteration + 1) % 50 == 0)
error, gradient = objective_function(
embedding,
P,
dof=dof,
bh_params=bh_params,
fft_params=fft_params,
reference_embedding=reference_embedding,
n_jobs=n_jobs,
should_eval_error=should_eval_error,
)
# Clip gradients to avoid points shooting off. This can be an issue
# when applying transform and points are initialized so that the new
# points overlap with the reference points, leading to large
# gradients
if max_grad_norm is not None:
norm = np.linalg.norm(gradient, axis=1)
coeff = max_grad_norm / (norm + 1e-6)
mask = coeff < 1
gradient[mask] *= coeff[mask, None]
# Correct the KL divergence w.r.t. the exaggeration if needed
if should_eval_error and exaggeration != 1:
error = error / exaggeration - np.log(exaggeration)
if should_call_callback:
# Continue only if all the callbacks say so
should_stop = any(
(bool(c(iteration + 1, error, embedding)) for c in callbacks)
)
if should_stop:
# Make sure to un-exaggerate P so it's not corrupted in future runs
if exaggeration != 1:
P /= exaggeration
raise OptimizationInterrupt(error=error, final_embedding=embedding)
# Update the embedding using the gradient
grad_direction_flipped = np.sign(update) != np.sign(gradient)
grad_direction_same = np.invert(grad_direction_flipped)
self.gains[grad_direction_flipped] += 0.2
self.gains[grad_direction_same] = (
self.gains[grad_direction_same] * 0.8 + min_gain
)
update = momentum * update - learning_rate * self.gains * gradient
# Clip the update sizes
if max_step_norm is not None:
update_norms = np.linalg.norm(update, axis=1, keepdims=True)
mask = update_norms.squeeze() > max_step_norm
update[mask] /= update_norms[mask]
update[mask] *= max_step_norm
embedding += update
# Zero-mean the embedding only if we're not adding new data points,
# otherwise this will reset point positions
if reference_embedding is None:
embedding -= np.mean(embedding, axis=0)
# Limit any new points within the circle defined by the interpolation grid
if should_limit_range:
if embedding.shape[1] == 1:
mask = (lower_limit < embedding) & (embedding < upper_limit)
np.clip(embedding, lower_limit, upper_limit, out=embedding)
elif embedding.shape[1] == 2:
r = np.linalg.norm(embedding, axis=1)
phi = np.arctan2(embedding[:, 0], embedding[:, 1])
mask = (lower_limit < embedding) & (embedding < upper_limit)
mask = np.any(mask, axis=1)
np.clip(r, lower_limit, upper_limit, out=r)
embedding[:, 0] = r * np.cos(phi)
embedding[:, 1] = r * np.sin(phi)
# Zero out the momentum terms for the points that hit the boundary
self.gains[~mask] = 0
if verbose and (iteration + 1) % 50 == 0:
stop_time = time()
print("Iteration %4d, KL divergence %6.4f, 50 iterations in %.4f sec" % (
iteration + 1, error, stop_time - start_time))
start_time = time()
timer.__exit__()
# Make sure to un-exaggerate P so it's not corrupted in future runs
if exaggeration != 1:
P /= exaggeration
# The error from the loop is the one for the previous, non-updated
# embedding. We need to return the error for the actual final embedding, so
# compute that at the end before returning
error, _ = objective_function(
embedding,
P,
dof=dof,
bh_params=bh_params,
fft_params=fft_params,
reference_embedding=reference_embedding,
n_jobs=n_jobs,
should_eval_error=True,
)
return error, embedding
```